Begin by reducing the cider. Add 2 cups of apple cider to a small pot. Heat over medium heat until it is simmering. Stir occasionally. At 30 minutes start checking with a measuring cup to see how much has reduced. Stop when the remaining cider measures ¾ cup. Set aside to cool before making the dough.
Melt the butter in a microwave safe dish. Set aside to cool at least 10 minutes before making the dough.
In a large bowl, combine all of the dry ingredients: flour, baking powder, baking soda, salt, spices and brown sugar. Stir well until combined.
In a second smaller bowl, whisk the egg. Add the melted butter, apple cider and vanilla. Whisk together well.
Pour the wet ingredients into the dry. Work together until all the dry is incorporated. At first it will seem like there isn't enough liquid, but just keep folding it together until it's even. The dough will feel a little sticky. Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate 2 hours.
Remove from refrigerator and turn out onto lightly floured surface. Form into a patty about ½ inch thick. Using a donut cutter or two sizes of biscuit/cookie cutters, cut into donut shapes. Gently work your leftover scraps into another patty ½ inch thick and cut more donuts until all the dough is used. You should have about twelve 2 ½ inch wide donuts.
In a large heavy bottomed pot (like a dutch oven), heat oil to 360 degrees. You want to make sure your oil stays between 350-375 to keep the donuts from getting greasy. Put 2-3 of the donuts into the oil. Watch the temperature because it will dip when the dough is added. Cook for about 2 minutes until donuts are floating and browned on bottom, flip over. Cook an additional 1-2 minutes on other side. Remove from oil using a spider strainer, let it drain for about 10 seconds over the pot of oil. Then place onto a plate lined with paper towels.
Continue until all donuts are cooked.
Combine topping ingredients in a large ziploc bag or pie dish. Dip each warm donut into the topping to coat.
Serve immediately or store in an airtight container at room temperature.